? Notes by Shailja upadhyay ?

?English teaching methods & Approaches ?

(1) Grammar translation method ( G.T method ) :-
• GT method is also known as Classical method,, Traditional method,, Greek nd latin method.
• It focus on rules – Deductive method

  • Rules then example.
    • Main focus : (RW) Reading and writing.
    • No attention on pronunciation.
    • Instruction gives in mother tongue (MT).

(2) Direct method :-
• Direct method is also known as “Natural method “.
• Taught in target language.
• No use of mother tongue.
• Focus on language use, not on grammar.
• Main focus – oral drill and vocabulary.

(3) Bilingual method :-
• Target language and other language is used.
• Child does not uses mother tongue, if required teachers use mother tongue.

(4) Dr. west new method :-
• Dr. MP west.
( Director of education in Bengal )
• Books – (i) Bilingualism
(ii) Learning to speak a foreign language in India.
• Indians boys needs first of all to be able read English then to write it, and lastly to speak it and understand when spoken.
• Favour :- use of MT.
•Against :- Direct method.
• Emphasis on :- Developing reading ability ( Silent reading).
• Main focus :- Reading.
• Drawbacks :- Listening,,writing & speaking.
• Advantages :- Independent reading,, practice of example.

(5) Audio lingual method :-
• Audio lingual method is also known as “Army method “.
• Focus on sound and sentence pattern.
• Oral drill pronunciation and just similar as “Direct method “.

(6) Language immersion method :-
• Teacher uses only L2 (English).
• Learner is made to immerse in L2 whole day and he uses only this language to learn another subject and other activities.

(7) Structural method :-
• Focus on the sentence structure,pattern and arrangement of words and phrases.
• Mastery over gradation pattern, selection & graded structures.
•Gradation :- pattern to order sentences ( Subject + verb + Object).

(8) Suggestopedia Approach :- was based on the power of suggestion in learning. the notion being that positive suggestion would make the learner more receptive.
• The main features of suggestopedia are the use of music to relax learners.
• The main disadvantage of suggestopedia are environment limitations and a child like situation as some learners may not enjoy background music.
• Teacher centred.
• Learner is receptive.

(9) Lexical Approach :- is also known as ordinary approach.
• Applied for the teaching of vocabulary for teaching items.
• This approach is based on a computer analysis of language.
• ( by Mascle Luis )

(10) Constructive Approach :-
• Promoted for doing by learning.
• It’s called too child centred approach.

(11) Situational Approach :-
• Given situations to make learn English.
• EX – Charts, objects,tables, teaching aids… etc.

(12) Electric Approach :-
• Teacher uses a variety of methods, strategies, methodologies from various approaches of English, according to the aim, ability, need and style of learning.

(13) Bottom up Approach :-
• Basic to advance
☆ Alphabet – words – sentence.

(14) Top down Approach :-
• Advance to basic.

(15) Total physical response (TPR) :-
As an approach to teaching a second language is based on the way that children learn their mother tongue.
• It is based on listening and link to the physical actions.
• Which are design to reinforce to comprehension of basic terms.
•Aural comprehension.
• It is suitable for beginners.
• It is not suitable of their a large number of students.

(16) Task based language teaching (TBLT) :-
• Core unit of planning and instruction which is given to students.
• Believe – Negotiation, modification, experiment.
• In language teaching task refers to – finding solutions, Reading a map.
• Main feature – TBLT believed in real communication activities.
• Main focus – Focus on process rather than studies. ( comprehension)
•Conversation is the central point

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